The second example of potential sources of medical errors I observed was the occurrence of interruptions of nurses on their drug rounds. Nurses are often interrupted by other healthcare workers when they are standing still by the drugs trolley (Pape et al., 2000). The drug round is a critical time and is 'vulnerable to a multitude of interruptions and distractions that affect the working memory and ability to focus' (Pape, et al., 2005, p108). Critical steps in the process of medication may be interrupted by noisy conversations with other staff members and visitors in a crowded hospital and also by multi-tasking during medication of patients (Bennett, 2006; Pape et al., 2005). Interruptions may affect clinical judgment in dosage, timing and selection of specific medications in a fast paced environment; 'constant vigilance' is needed to ensure appropriate medication for each patient (Eisenhauer, 2007).
A critical essay is an analysis of a text such as a book, film, article, or painting. The goal of this type of paper is to offer a text or an interpretation of some aspect of a text or to situate the text in a broader context. For example, a critical analysis of a book might focus on the tone of the text to determine how that tone influences the meaning of the text overall. Or, a critical analysis of a film might focus on the significance of a recurring symbol in the film. Regardless, a critical essay should include an argumentative thesis about the text and plenty of textual evidence sources to help support your interpretation of the text.  Keep reading to learn how to write a critical essay.
Searching for evidence of critical thinking in discourse has roots in a definition of critical thinking put forth by Kuhn (1991),  which places more emphasis on the social nature of discussion and knowledge construction. There is limited research on the role of social experience in critical thinking development, but there is some evidence to suggest it is an important factor. For example, research has shown that 3- to 4-year-old children can discern, to some extent, the differential creditability  and expertise  of individuals. Further evidence for the impact of social experience on the development of critical thinking skills comes from work that found that 6- to 7-year-olds from China have similar levels of skepticism to 10- and 11-year-olds in the United States.  If the development of critical thinking skills was solely due to maturation, it is unlikely we would see such dramatic differences across cultures.