At first, in the 1960s many of the gang kids were immigrants who brought gang behaviors learned on the streets of Hong Kong with them and found it difficult to fit in. By the late 1970s most of the gang kids were recruited from the schools among American-born Chinese, or immigrant children who had come to the . too young to have had any Triad connections in the old country. After the Golden Dragon Massacre, with the Joe Boy leadership in jail, control of the Joe Boys devolved onto younger high-school-age members. There was some Joe Boy activity then, but it gradually withered away.