Railgun research paper

Two million years ago, the most logical way for a trapdoor spider to get from Africa to Australia was by going right across the Indian Ocean. Unlike some other spiders, which can use their silk to “balloon” and even direct their aerial path over huge ocean distances , trapdoor spiders are firmly grounded. This means that their most likely method of transport was passively floating there, sailing the high seas on a mat of plant debris. This phenomenon—called “rafting”—is a wild card way for living things to spread across the globe. Madagascar appears to have received many of its mammals this way, as does South America in regards to burrowing worm lizards. We’ve even seen it occur in real time, when hurricane debris allowed iguanas to colonize a Caribbean island .

Forms of ground launch limited to a given maximum acceleration (such as due to human g-force tolerances if intended to carry passengers) have the corresponding minimum launcher length scale not linearly but with velocity squared. [54] Tethers can have even more non-linear, exponential scaling. The tether-to-payload mass ratio of a space tether would be around 1:1 at a tip velocity 60% of its characteristic velocity but becomes more than 1000:1 at a tip velocity 240% of its characteristic velocity . For instance, for anticipated practicality and a moderate mass ratio with current materials, the HASTOL concept would have the first half (4 km/s) of velocity to orbit be provided by other means than the tether itself. [11]

This may, of course, be totally fine with the Navy. In recent years, branch officials have slowly walked back the rising hype surrounding the futuristic cannon, especially since the realization that the railgun’s specialized HVP shells are just as deadly out of the barrel of, say, an M777 howitzer on a Marine firebase downrange. “We thought railguns were something we were really going to go after,” Deputy Defense Secretary Robert Work stated in May 2016, “but it turns out that powder guns firing the same hypervelocity projectiles gets you almost as much as you would get out of the electromagnetic railgun, but it’s something we can do much faster.”

Rail guns are supposed to be powered solely by electricity, and don't use explosives of any kind for propellant. Babb told PopSci the answer: The flames are from pieces of the projectile disintegrating; the 7-pound slug is jammed so firmly between the rails that when it's fired, pieces shear off and ignite in the air. There's been some speculation online that the flames come from some sort of gas that's been used to increase conductivity. Wrong: The EMRG uses no secondary propellant — just electricity. As a result, the breech can remain open during firing and the gun produces no blowback whatsoever. In fact, the researchers sometimes place cameras and mirrors inside the breech during tests to get a better sense of what's going on.

In July 2012, the European Medicines Agency recommended approval of a gene therapy treatment for the first time in either Europe or the United States. The treatment used Alipogene tiparvovec (Glybera) to compensate for lipoprotein lipase deficiency , which can cause severe pancreatitis . [96] The recommendation was endorsed by the European Commission in November 2012 [10] [27] [97] [98] and commercial rollout began in late 2014. [99] Alipogene tiparvovec was expected to cost around $ million per treatment in 2012, [100] revised to $1 million in 2015, [101] making it the most expensive medicine in the world at the time. [102] As of 2016, only one person had been treated with drug. [103]

Railgun research paper

railgun research paper

Rail guns are supposed to be powered solely by electricity, and don't use explosives of any kind for propellant. Babb told PopSci the answer: The flames are from pieces of the projectile disintegrating; the 7-pound slug is jammed so firmly between the rails that when it's fired, pieces shear off and ignite in the air. There's been some speculation online that the flames come from some sort of gas that's been used to increase conductivity. Wrong: The EMRG uses no secondary propellant — just electricity. As a result, the breech can remain open during firing and the gun produces no blowback whatsoever. In fact, the researchers sometimes place cameras and mirrors inside the breech during tests to get a better sense of what's going on.

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