Geography is comprised of three major sub-groups: physical geography, human geography and cartography. Physical geography is an earth science that seeks to explain the interactions of the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere in shaping physical landscapes. Human geography is a social science that seeks to explain the influence of humans on the landscape; in other words, the spatial organization of cultural, political and economic activity. Cartography is the science of map making and spatial representation, which more recently includes the use of digital technology and geographic information science (GIScience).
During the Middle Ages , the fall of the Roman empire led to a shift in the evolution of geography from Europe to the Islamic world .  Muslim geographers such as Muhammad al-Idrisi produced detailed world maps (such as Tabula Rogeriana ), while other geographers such as Yaqut al-Hamawi , Abu Rayhan Biruni , Ibn Battuta , and Ibn Khaldun provided detailed accounts of their journeys and the geography of the regions they visited. Turkish geographer, Mahmud al-Kashgari drew a world map on a linguistic basis, and later so did Piri Reis ( Piri Reis map ). Further, Islamic scholars translated and interpreted the earlier works of the Romans and the Greeks and established the House of Wisdom in Baghdad for this purpose.  Abū Zayd al-Balkhī , originally from Balkh , founded the "Balkhī school" of terrestrial mapping in Baghdad .  Suhrāb, a late tenth century Muslim geographer accompanied a book of geographical coordinates, with instructions for making a rectangular world map with equirectangular projection or cylindrical equidistant projection.  [ verification needed ]